Options for importing green hydrogen into Germany by 2030: Transportation routes, country assessments and implementation requirements

Analysis of the Academies’ Project “Energy Systems of the Future”

Series on “Energy Systems of the Future” (ESYS)


  • Publisher/author
  • Staiß, Frithjof et al.
  • published
  • March 2024
  • ISBN
  • 978-3-9820053-6-2
  • volume
  • 137

Hydrogen is an important element that can act as a stepping stone on the pathway to achieving climate neutrality. It facilitates the transition away from fossil fuels, especially in the industrial, shipping and aviation sector.

The german demand for hydrogen and its synthesis products is set to increase considerably in the near future. Some forecasts suggest it could hit around 45–110 terawatt hours in 2030. Following that trajectory, the demand could be in the region of 400–700 terawatt hours by 2045. It is anticipated that the only way of meeting this future level of demand in Germany will be to import significant amounts of hydrogen from other countries inside and outside of the EU.

A working group of “Energy Systems of the Future” (ESYS), an initiative of the German Academies of Sciences, has now completed its analysis of suitable options for transporting hydrogen and their advantages and disadvantages. The obstacles potentially standing in the way of trade links being established have also been assessed.

Rather than recommending one fixed route, the expert team presents an in-depth review of the available options. The report includes cost calculations just as country assessments provided as examples for selected transportation routes and regional framework conditions.

Staiß, F. et al.: “Options for importing green hydrogen into Germany by 2030: Transportation routes, country assessments and implementation requirements”, Series on “Energy Systems of the Future” (ESYS), 2024, ISBN 978-3-9820053-6-2.

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  • Energy Systems of the Future

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